Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Even, Yet, and Still

Even, Yet, and Still Even, Yet, and Still Even, Yet, and Still By Maeve Maddox Until recently I thought that the pleonasm even still was to be found only in the uncertain writings of college freshmen. Then I read this in the current issue of my favorite writers magazine: Traditionally published books get the nice displays, posters and extra attention from store managers. Even still, many of the titles end up in the bargain bin. I did a Google search and found millions of examples of the wretched expression. It seems to be especially popular in the titles of songs, poems, and blogs. Here are some examples: . even still, Id happily do it all over again. even still, Safari sucks. Even still we lose our way Is Anyone Even Still Blogging Anymore? At the risk of beating a dead horse, Ill try to explain why even still does not belong in careful writing. As adverbs modifying comparatives, the words are virtually interchangeable: She is even happier today than she was yesterday. She is still happier today than she was yesterday. Fans want still more details of their favorite celebrities. Fans want even more details If the expression is intended to mean still, then still is enough: Is anyone still blogging? If it is intended to mean yet, then yet or one of its synonyms should serve: nevertheless, however, notwithstanding: Nevertheless, Id happily do it all over again. Notwithstanding, Safari sucks. Nevertheless, we lose our way. That being said, sometimes the words even and still can come together correctly when the even is being used as an intensifier and the still is an adverb of time: Do they even still make Zima? Why Hilary is even still in the race†¦. Finally, heres a dilly of a headline that Ill leave to our readers to sort out: Yet Even Still More U.S. Presidential Election Maps Already Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Idioms About Numbers5 Lessons for Mixing Past and Present Tense10 Functions of the Comma

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Understanding Communicative Competence

Understanding Communicative Competence The term communicative competence refers to both the tacit knowledge of a language and the ability to use it effectively. Its also called  communication competence, and its the key to social acceptance. The concept of communicative competence (a term coined by linguist Dell Hymes in 1972) grew out of resistance to the concept of linguistic competence introduced by Noam Chomsky. Most scholars now consider linguistic competence to be a part of communicative competence. Examples and Observations Why have so many scholars, from so many fields, studied communicative competence within so many relational, institutional, and cultural contexts? Our hunch is that scholars, as well as the contemporary Western societies in which most live and work, widely accept the following tacit beliefs: (a) within any situation, not all things that can be said and done are equally competent; (b) success in personal and professional relationships depends, in no small part, on communicative competence; and (c) most people display incompetence in at least a few situations, and a smaller number are judged incompetent across many situations.(Wilson and Sabee) By far the most important development in TESOL has been the emphasis on a communicative approach in language teaching (Coste, 1976; Roulet, 1972; Widdowson, 1978). The one thing that everyone is certain about is the necessity to use language for communicative purposes in the classroom. Consequently, the concern for teaching linguistic competence has widened to include communicative competence, the socially appropriate use of language, and the methods reflect this shift from form to function.(Paulston) Hymes on Competence We have then to account for the fact that a normal child acquires knowledge of sentences not only as grammatical, but also as appropriate. He or she acquires competence as to when to speak, when not, and as to what to talk about with whom, when, where, in what manner. In short, a child becomes able to accomplish a repertoire of  speech acts, to take part in speech events, and to evaluate their accomplishment by others. This competence, moreover, is integral with attitudes, values, and motivations concerning language, its features and uses, and integral with competence for, and attitudes toward, the interrelation of language with the other code of communicative conduct.(Hymes) Canale and Swains Model of Communicative Competence In Theoretical Bases of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing (Applied Linguistics, 1980), Michael Canale and Merrill Swain identified these four components of communicative competence: (i) Grammatical competence includes knowledge of phonology, orthography, vocabulary, word formation and sentence formation.(ii) Sociolinguistic competence includes knowledge of sociocultural rules of use. It is concerned with the learners ability to handle for example settings, topics and communicative functions in different sociolinguistic contexts. In addition, it deals with the use of appropriate grammatical forms for different communicative functions in different sociolinguistic contexts.(iii) Discourse competence is related to the learners mastery of understanding and producing texts in the modes of listening, speaking, reading and writing. It deals with cohesion and coherence in different types of texts.(iv) Strategic competence refers to compensatory strategies in case of grammatical or sociolinguistic or discourse difficulties, such as the use of reference sources, grammatical and lexical paraphrase, requests for repetition, clarification, slower speech, or problems in addres sing strangers when unsure of their social status or in finding the right cohesion devices. It is also concerned with such performance factors as coping with the nuisance of background noise or using gap fillers.(Peterwagner) Resources and Further Reading Canale, Michael, and Merrill Swain. â€Å"Theoretical Bases Of Communicative Approaches To Second Language Teaching And Testing.† Applied Linguistics, I, no. 1, 1 Mar. 1980, pp. 1-47, doi:10.1093/applin/i.1.1.Chomsky, Noam. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. MIT, 1965.Hymes, Dell H. â€Å"Models of the Interaction of Language and Social Life.† Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication, edited by John J. Gumperz and Dell Hymes, Wiley-Blackwell, 1991, pp. 35-71.Hymes, Dell H. â€Å"On Communicative Competence.† Sociolinguistics: Selected Readings, edited by John Bernard Pride and Janet Holmes, Penguin, 1985, pp. 269-293.Paulston, Christina Bratt. Linguistics and Communicative Competence: Topics in ESL. Multilingual Matters, 1992.Peterwagner, Reinhold. What Is the Matter with Communicative Competence?: An Analysis to Encourage Teachers of English to Assess the Very Basis of Their Teaching. LIT Verlang, 2005.Rickheit, Gert, and Hans Strohner, edi tors. Handbook of Communication Competence: Handbooks of Applied Linguistics. De Gruyter, 2010. Wilson, Steven R., and Christina M. Sabee. â€Å"Explicating Communicative Competence as a Theoretical Term.† Handbook of Communication and Social Interaction Skills, edited by John O. Greene and Brant Raney Burleson, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003, pp. 3-50.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Do you or do you NOT consider the problem solving techniques such as Term Paper

Do you or do you NOT consider the problem solving techniques such as COP, POP, and COMPSTAT as intelligence-led processes - Term Paper Example For example, Compstat technique is an information-driven managerial process. It is a strategic crime control technique that relies on timely and accurate intelligence for its procedures. According to Bratton and Knobler (1998), Compstat presents practices and structures that enable organizations to successfully maximize efficiency and reduce crime. It is based on the principle that police will be in a better position to maintain order and solve other problems in the community by controlling serious crimes. This will enable them to achieve their goal of promoting public safety. According to Weisburd (2003), Compstat operates under four critical crime-reduction principles. These are, effective statistics, fast deployment of resources and personnel, accurate and timely intelligence, and relentless follow-up and assessment. Compstat involves collecting and analyzing crime data then mapping them. It also involves regularly analyzing other important police performance measures and holding their managers accountable for their level of performance as indicated by these data. Information used in Compstat is usually obtained from various sources like prisoner debriefings, FBI Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) records and reports, field interview reports, incident reports and field interview reports. Compstat presents a paradigm for discretion and accountability at the various levels of the organization. Commanders are held responsible for solving crime problems by top administrators using this information. Compstat has created a management system that keeps everyone focused on the mission of the organization. Through its utilization, Compstat has produced notable public safety (Blumstein and Wallman, 2000 and Conklin, 2003). Law enforcement units hold Compstat meetings regularly. These provide a rational inspection and assessment system that helps to monitor their activities and identify the responsibilities of the middle manager. Compstat

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Inroduction to property law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Inroduction to property law - Essay Example legal right to the property could have been rightfully established, however in the absence of this legal claim, his rights must be established through proprietary estoppel. The commonly accepted definition of proprietary estoppel is as provided by Oliver J in the case of Taylors Fashions Ltd v Liverpool Victoria Trustees Co Ltd2 is that proprietary estoppel may be established in this cases where â€Å"it would be unconscionable for a party to be permitted to deny that, which, knowingly or unknowingly, he has allowed or encouraged another to assume to his detriment.† Therefore, in applying this to the case of Derek, it may be possible to establish that it would be unconscionable for Pam as the legal title holder, to now sell the house and ask Derek to move into an old people’s home to his detriment, when the house was supposed to be a home for all of them, and Derek has been making mortgage payments all the while on the basis of this assumption. Moreover, at the time of purchase of the house, the main objective was not only to provide a home for them but also to enable Derek to be able to take in lodgers so that he could be provided with an income in his old age, which is also the reason why Derek has assumed the primary financial burden in making mortgage payments on the house. Hence, it would be unconscionable to now expect him to vacate the house and move into an old age home. The objective of proprietary estoppel is to establish interest and proprietary interest in providing a remedy in the event of a property transfer where legal formalities fall just short of what is required3. Proprietary estoppel was invoked in the case of Yaxley and Gotts v Another4 in providing just such a remedy. The issue in this case was the dispute over whether an oral contract did indeed exist between the parties and whether this could provide justification for the issue of a remedy. However, as pointed out by Justice Robert Walker in his judgment, proprietary estoppel was

Friday, January 24, 2020

British Romanticism versus American Romanticism :: essays research papers

I bet since you read the topic of my paper that you think that this will be a â€Å"kissy kissy, lovey gooey† story about two British and American lovebirds. Well, the truth is that it’s not, in fact, it is totally different! The word â€Å"romance† has changed very much since our ancestral fathers had defined it. Unfortunately, I cannot write about Valentines Day, and things pertaining to that, but I will tell you how romance used to be and what exactly romance was like before modern day life changed the definition. So now, I’ll explain the differences, as well as the similarities between the British and American Romance. First, let’s give a little bit of overview about the British and American romance definitions. The British defined Romanticism as â€Å"a fascination with youth and innocence as well as a questioning of authority.† Also, â€Å"changing tradition for idealistic purposes and an adaptation to change.† p. The American poets defined Romanticism as â€Å"a school of thought that valued feelings and intuition over reason.† p. 143. â€Å"A Journey away from the corruption of civilization and the limits of rational thought and toward the integrity of nature and the freedom of imagination.† p. 142. American romance also showed a great respect to youth and innocence, just like that of the British. One of the very active British poets of this time, William Blake, wrote a very good poem called â€Å"The Chimney Sweeper from Songs of Innocence†, and the following is a quote from the poem, â€Å"Though the morning was cold, Tom was happy and warm, So if all do their duty they need not fear harm†As you can see, the trait of youth and innocence is easily visible in this poem. The child thinks that if he follows the strict laws of his keepers, that he will be treated well. Unfortunately, these are the thoughts of an innocent and naive mind. So he doesn’t have the experience to realize this though. It is probably likely to say that British and American romance originated from two different places. There were two primary events that caused the creation of British Romanticism. The primary was the French Revolution. The two major Romantic writers of this time were all for the expansion of ideas from the French, however, the English didn’t want this. This whole period made many stories and poems possible. The American Romanticism developed from a totally different string of events, however.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Critical path method, Knowledge, Management Essay

The traditional project cycle MacAthur’s project sequence model The participatory project management cycle Then discuss which one of them is best suited to ensure that learning takes place and that project planning improved. According to Cusworth and Franks (1993:3) a project is the investment of capital in a time bound intervention to create productive assets. Capital will be referring to both human resources and physical resources and the productive refers to the outputs or end results of the project. A project can refer to vast array of development initiatives, ranging those designed to enhance through project intended to establish new organizational forms and sets of procedures ,for instance for delivering health care more efficiently ,to project takes place over a particular time (time-bound ),it is intended to achieve a specific objective or set of objectives .There is two broad approaches to project planning namely directive (linear) interactive learning process The traditional project cycle is the directive project cycle ,and is sometimes called the blueprint planning. Detailed plans are drawn up in advance and implementation occurs in a linear ,sequential fashion .Project decisions taken during design and implementation are relatively pure and can be made into terms of a few controllable variables ,usually of a quantitative nature. The traditional project cycle is based on that assumption and does not easily accommodate any deviations. Deviations such as scope change request can cause major upheavals in the project schedule. The project planning and management is viewed as a cyclic process. The advantage of this model is that it provides for a number of phases designed in such a way as to link the formulation of basic policy guidelines to specific projects and programmes . The project cycle is the framework used by the world bank to design ,prepare ,implement and supervise projects.In practice ,the Word bank and the borrowing country work closely through out the project cycle although they have different roles and responsibilities .Generally the d uration of the project cycle is long by commercial standards. MacAthur’s  project sequence model also as interactive learning process. MacAthur sees his project sequence as an improvement on the typical cyclic model since it shows that this is genuine attempt to reflect reality ,not not just a simplified academic model. MacAthur’s project sequence model is characteristics of projects ,namely that it normally requires considerable funding (investment ). This financial commitment is important ,and may come from within a country. The sequence cycle emphasis is on the individual project and not on the general process. Project sequence model on the role of the local is assumed and one of the project goals is to discover what to do in the environment .New learning is seen as essential to success , meaning is developed within the local context not imposed from outside .Objectives and strategies emerge from on-site investigation . Resources ,activities and timetables are adjusted as experience is gained . Design decisions are experimental and dynamic . Modification occurs as learning takes place . Participatory project management cycle is used to work in a result-oriented and participatory way. With this approach the life span of projects or programmes is divided into various phases which together form the project cycle analysis , planning ,implementation ,monitoring ,evaluation and adjustment. Some organizations want to integrate project cycle management into their activities to meet external (donor) requirements. Others are looking for a new way of getting intended beneficiaries partners and their own personnel more involve in project management through participating and increased ownership. Project participatory management (PPM) is constantly involving . in collaboration with its clients .development in the use of project participatory management project contributes to its innovation . The knowledge acquired during this process is made to other interested parties . MacArthur’s project sequence cycle is best suited to ensure learning place and that project planning is improved .Interactive planning is based on the premise of uncertainty ,the likely hood that conditions ,problems and solutions are not completely known to the outset knowledge must be obtained as the project proceeds and appropriate modifications made on the basis of this learning ,planning project decisions are often impure and made in terms of shifting and often qualitative factors , by doing so it will give room to learning from the past projects and it will improve the project.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Speech Is The Right Of Freedom Of Speech - 1560 Words

George Washington once said If freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter. This mentality still holds true in the United States today where the freedom of speech is held as one of the greatest rights Americans possess. However, to fully understand the first Amendment right of freedom of speech it is paramount to understand what it entails, its limitations, and how it has evolved over time. The first question that must be answered is what is the constitutional right of freedom of speech in the United States? According to the first Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.(Constitution) Freedom of speech gives the right to openly discuss grievances, ideas, beliefs, opinions, and allows an individu al the ability to express themselves without fear of punishment. However the freedom of speech that is known today is not the same as that experienced in the infancy of the United States. During colonial times the legal rights of men were based on English common law, including freedom of speech, and many aspects of speech were not protected. For example, in 1612 a person in Virginia was sentenced to death for what was considered religious blasphemy and a 1646 law in Massachusetts punishedShow MoreRelatedThe Rights Of Freedom Of Speech1231 Words   |  5 Pagespress were in essence â€Å"the eyes and ears of the people.† Freedom of the press is the irrefutable privilege to propagate opinions in print without censorship by the government. Americans enjoy freedom of the press under the First Amendment to the Constitution, which states: â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition theRead MoreThe Right Of Freedom Speech1186 Words   |  5 PagesThe right to freedom speech is one of the many great reasons America is one of if not the best country on this planet. America for ages has been a home for all and place where anyone can be themselves. However, what happens when these rights are tampered with and questioned? What happens when freedom of speech is no longer a guaranteed right? The supreme court case Island Trees School District v Pico dealt with a scenario where this right was essentially dissected. The Island Trees School DistrictRead MoreFreedom Of Speech By The Bill Of Rights Essay1340 Words   |  6 Pagescontroversial topic that many protested for was, freedom of speech. After many years of wanting to be heard, Americans finally achieved the assurance of having a voice. The Bill of Rights was passed on December 15, 1791; commencing with the First Amendment . The First Amendments defends freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly and petition. Stated in the U.S. Constitution, the First Amendment declares Congress shall make no law†¦ abridging the freedom of speech.† Thus, meaning that citizens cannot be imposedRead MoreFreedom Of Speech : Bill Of Rights851 Words   |  4 PagesBill of Rights in the First Amendment the following: â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress of grievances† (Bill of Rights - Bill of Rights Institute. Bill of Rights Institute). How do these â€Å"Clauses† protect us within the First Amendment? Do we really have â€Å"freedom of speech†? LetRead MoreThe Freedom Of Speech By The Bill Of Rights1569 Words   |  7 Pagesbill of rights was created to give people the fundamentally important individual freedoms that no law could limit or take away. The quote from In Our Defense Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press greater emphasis how vital it was to make freedom of speech the main priority for the people of this nation. However, many of the stuff the people express when using this right had causedRead MoreFreedom Of Speech And Moral Rights2018 Words   |  9 Pagesgenerated controversy concerning the extent of freedom of speech and moral rights. The cultural diversity has provided a basis to crossover the cultural, racial, and even gender boundaries that have allowed a sense of equality in society. In hindsight, this front has promoted the decline in moral obligations leading to inaccurate accounts of cultural diversity in the interest of generate societal appraisal. Therefore, freedom of speech and moral rights has become intertwined at a time when they shouldRead MoreFreedom Of Speech And The Right For Privacy1791 Words   |  8 Pagessuch a gargantuan number of unique, global users (some of whom use the WWW more maliciously than others), comes a number of ethical controversies. The World Wide Web has been fraught with debate, particularly concerning the clash between freedom of speech and the right for privacy and security. This paper will discuss this issue, focusing on the users of the WWW, those that control access, and those that use the information uploaded to the World Wide Web. People around the globe use the World Wide WebRead MoreHuman Rights And Freedom Of Speech1932 Words   |  8 Pagesshall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear† and that â€Å"to rebel against tyranny and oppression†¦is protected by the rule of law.† We, as people of the free world, are guaranteed our inalienable rights and these fundamental rights can only be taken away by due process (The Universal Declaration†¦). As one of the world’s emerging superpowers, the People’s Republic of China holds a long history of impeding human rights for the â€Å"health of social stability† (Human Rights in†¦). China isRead MoreThe Freedom Of Speech By The Bill Of Rights977 Words   |  4 Pageswhat the ones mainly pertaining to criminal justice actually meant. The First, Fourth, Fifth,Sixth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendment all provide a foundation for our criminal justice system. There are also many particular protections in The Bill of Rights. The First Amendment has many different clauses that make it up and I would say that it is the most important out of the Amendments in regards to the criminal justice system. First of all, the Establishment Clause ensures the individuals from theRead MoreCivil Rights And Freedom Of Speech1569 Words   |  7 Pages Civil rights and liberties are protections granted to United States citizens through the Constitution. The key difference between the two is that civil rights are rights that need protection by the government. Examples of civil rights include laws ensuring people s’ physical integrity and safety, laws to make sure that people are not forced into labor, and laws providing equal access to health care, education, culture, etc. among others. These are important because they ensure that every citizen